What is Delegation?
Delegation means delegating some work to others and giving them the right to do that work. This also includes giving decision-making authority in certain identified areas and giving subordinates the responsibility to complete the work. As in this process, a superior person entrusts a part of his authority to a subordinate, he cannot delegate authority which he does not own. Subordinates are expected to work within the limits that were made at the time of the delegations. Delegation can be written or implied, specific or general or formal or informal. This helps in reducing the workload of the manager as they can delegate some of their work to others. It also helps in improving motivation, morale and job satisfaction of subordinates. This enables a manager to use subordinate’s specialized knowledge and experience.
The process of delegations involves the determination of acceptable outcomes and the assignment of duties to subordinates. The authority to perform these duties is also given to the subordinates so that they can take decisions and utilize the available resources. Subordinates to whom authority is delegated are also made accountable for the execution of these duties.
Elements of delegation:
There are three main elements of delegation:-
Authority: Rights and powers that are delegated. Authority is the power of a person to order his subordinates and act on the merits of his post. In an organization, authority varies according to job status. The reason for this is that there exists an interrelationship between job positions and levels of the organization.
Responsibility: The duties and tasks to be performed are delegated. The delegation also involves some transfer of responsibility. Technically, responsibility is the responsibility of a subordinate to perform the duty properly.
Accountability: Reporting on the discharge of responsibility or the use of authority is accountability that cannot be delegated. Delegation makes seniors’ jobs easier and has many benefits for both the superior and the subordinate, the better still being accountable for the task. Accountability is the accountability for the end result of a job. Better fully accountable for all things, tasks regardless of delegation. This further means that the delegation does not involve any transfer of accountability.
Importance of Delegation:
Effective management: Delegation gives managers a breathing space by sharing their workload. As a result, managers can focus on high-priority tasks. In addition, freedom from routine tasks allows for the discovery of new ideas.
Employee Development: New responsibilities are assigned to employees with the help of delegation. This allows them to work on a domain that is different from monotonous routine work, enabling them to develop new skills and discover hidden talents. Thus, delegation leads to staff development by helping them expand their area of operations and develop them. Effectively, it increases their future prospects and breeding future managers.
Motivation of employees: Through the process of delegation, senior officers are assigned to the appropriate subordinates with the tasks assigned to them. The motivation of employees not only leads to the development of talent but also has various psychological benefits. This is because the trust and confidence displayed in the subordinate build his confidence and self-esteem, which ultimately motivates him to work hard.
Development facility: As mentioned, delegation provides opportunities for employees to develop and train effectively as better decision-makers and managers. This is further helpful in the process of expanding an organization, as it already has a suitable workforce that is sufficiently competent.
Management hierarchy: Delegation establishes better-subordinate relationships. Also, it is directly related to the extent and flow of authority. This is because the authority determines who to report to whom.