What are the types of plans?
Planning is a comprehensive work of management, it is broad in its scope. Therefore, all the managers of all levels participate in the plan. However, plans made by top-level managers will be different from those who make lower managers. The plans are also different from what they want to achieve and what methods will be used to achieve them. There are three main types of plans that a manager will use to pursue the company’s goals, which include Strategic plans, Tactical plans, and operational plans. If you think about these three types of plans, then you can see how they are related to each other in achieving organizational goals. So let’s look at the types of plans that the manager deals with.
Strategic plans are prepared by keeping the whole organization in mind and starting with the organization’s mission. Top-level managers, such as CEO or President, will design and execute strategic plans to illustrate a picture of the organization’s desired future and long-term goals. Essentially, strategic plans look forward to where the organization wants to stay in three, five, even ten years. The strategic plan provided by top-level managers works as a framework for the lower level plan.
Strategic plans look forward to the organization for the next two, three, five or more years, from where he wants to be present. A multi-language partnership is required, these plans demand reconciliation between all levels of management within the organization. Top-level management develops directional objectives for the entire organization, while the lower levels of management develop relevant plans for achieving relevant objectives. The strategic plan outline of top management for the entire organization is formulated and determines dimensions for lower-level planning.
Important points of strategic plans:
- This is the long-term objectives of an enterprise, determining the action plan to be followed and the resources to be adopted to achieve these goals.
- Since it is planning the direction of the company’s progress, it is therefore done by the top management of an organization.
- It essentially focuses on planning for the coming years to pick up the organization from where it intends to be where it is today.
- With a focus on adjusting future growth, strategic planning should be forward-facing, effective and flexible.
- These plans provide outlines and guidelines for the lower level plan.
Tactical plans support strategic plans by translating specific plans relevant to a specific area of the organization. Tactical plans related to the responsibility and efficiency of the lower level departments are related to meeting their share of the strategic plans.
Tactical plans are related to short-term frames and narrow scope compared to strategic plans. These plans are generally of one year or less because they are short. Duration is considered as the goal. On the other hand, long-term goals may take many years or more to complete. Generally, it is the responsibility of the central manager to take a comprehensive strategic plan and identify specific strategic tasks.
Also read | Objectives of planning
Important points of tactical plans:
- Tactical plans are in a short time frame (usually less than 3 years) and are usually developed by middle-level managers.
- It gives details of specific tools or work plans for implementing Tactical plans by units within each division.
- Tactical plans give details of resource allocation and allocation between sub-units within each division.
Operational plans sit at the bottom of the totem pole; There are plans that are made by frontline, or low-level managers. All operational plans are focused on specific processes and processes that are within the lowest levels of the organization. Managers should plan the routine tasks of the department by using high-level details.
Also read | What is planning process?
Important points of operational plans:
- They are usually developed by the manager to fulfill their job responsibilities.
- They are developed by the supervisors, team leaders, and facilitators to support strategic plans.
- They control the day-to-day operations of an organization.
Types of operational plans:
Standing Plans: Standing Plans are the schemes to be used repeatedly. Examples include policies, procedures, and rules. The advantage of standing plans is that they promote unity and fairness within an organization and help to support the perceived organizational values. Managers do not have to make unique decisions already addressed by various organizational policies. Permanent schemes also save time because managers already know how to address general conditions.
Ongoing Plans: Ongoing Plans are prepared for single or extraordinary situations or problems and usually are abandoned or changed after use, e.g. Programs, projects, and budgets.