Theory of Motivation:
The theory of motivation is tasked with figuring out what individuals have to work towards for a goal or outcome. Businesses are interested in motivational theory because motivated individuals are more productive, leading to the greater economic use of resources.
Most motivational theories differentiate between internal and external factors. The former is concerned with a person’s interest, pleasure, and willingness to participate in an activity. People with higher confidence will drive their abilities towards success are likely to have higher levels of intrinsic motivation. External motivations focus on the outcome of the activity i.e. individuals are motivated by the outcome rather than the activity itself.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs:
Abraham Maslow is one of the most prominent psychologists of the twentieth century. The hierarchy of their needs is an image familiar to most business students and managers. The principle is based on a simple premise. Human has requirements that are hierarchically hierarchical. Maslow’s hierarchy requirements form the basis of principles that attempt to explain job satisfaction. As we meet these basic needs, we start meeting higher-order needs. In other words, once a lower level of need is met, it does not act as a motivator.
Based on the basic physical, biological, social, and psychological needs of humans, Maslow came up with a five-step theory that puts individual needs into different categories and prioritizes their attainment. In order to reduce priority these categories are:
• Physical needs (food, shelter, clothing);
• Safety and security needs (physical security);
• social needs (relationships with others);
• Respect required (receiving acknowledgment from others); And
• The need for self-realization (desire for accomplishment or leaving behind a legacy).
1. Physiological requirements: Physiological requirements refer to the need for food, water, and other biological needs. These needs are basic because when they are lacking, the search for them can dominate all other urges. Imagine being very hungry at that point, all your behavior can be directed into finding food. Once you dine, however, the search for food stops and the promise of food no longer serves as a motivator.
2. Safety Needs: The next needs felt after meeting physical needs are called Safety and Security Needs. These needs require expression in desires such as economic security and protection from material threats. To meet these needs more money is required and hence, the person is motivated to do more work. Like physical needs, they become inactive after being satisfied.
3. Social Needs: Social Needs refers to the need to bond with other human beings, the beloved and to form a permanent engagement with others. It is because of this socialization and belonging that individuals like to work in groups and especially older people go to work.
4. Esteem Needs: Esteem needs refer to self-esteem and self-respect. They include requirements that indicate confidence, achievement, ability, knowledge, and independence. Meeting the needs of respect leads to confidence, power and the ability to be useful in an organization. It also refers to a desire to be respected by one’s peers, feels important, and appreciated.
5. Self-Actualization Needs: Self-Actualization refers to a person’s desire to develop and develop their full potential. It manifests itself with the desire to acquire new skills, take on new challenges, and behave in a way that achieves one’s life goals.
Herzberg’s theory of motivation:
Herzberg’s two-factor theory, also known as motivational-hygiene, derives from a study conducted between accounts and engineers to determine whether a person feels good or bad about their job Is (Saif et al., 2012). Regarding ‘satisfying’, Herzberg said that there were five characteristics of the work that describe satisfaction, such as: –
Satisfaction factors are:
• Achievement and recognition
• Only work
• The responsibility
• Growth and development
At the other end of the spectrum, Herzberg identified factors that could lower employee morale.
The factors of dissatisfaction are:
• Company policies
• Relationship to supervisor and peers
• Work Status
• Salary and position
McClelland’s theory of motivation:
Another well-known need-based theory of motivation, in contrast to the satisfaction-dissatisfaction needs hierarchy, is the theory developed by McClelland and his colleagues. ‘McClelland developed his theory based on Henry Murray’s long list of developed personalities and the needs used in his early study of personality. McClelland’s need-theory is closely associated with learning theory, as he believed that the types of events experienced or learned by people in their environment and culture are learned.
Process theories explain how ‘satisfaction’ is what is contrary to ‘what’. Equity theory states that employees will use their input against the output they receive from it, the higher the rewards, the higher their satisfaction. Regarding this theory, employees who feel that they get more output from their jobs will experience satisfaction from the job they have employed. Some aspects of the job itself shape how an employee believes it. Explained tasks provide better job satisfaction because a clear role gives rise to a workforce that is happy, committed and shows a lot of involvement in the work that is done. The authors identified five key job characteristics that impact on an employee’s psychological state and affect their motivation and job satisfaction, as well as their level of absenteeism, namely the diversity of skills involved in a task, of work. Identity and importance, autonomy and responsiveness.
Vroom’s theory of motivation:
Victor Vroom’s (1964) expectancy theory aims to explain how people choose from the available tasks. Vroom defines motivation as a process that governs our choice between alternative forms of voluntary behavior. The basic rationale of this theory is that motivation stems from the belief that decisions will be their desired outcomes.
Motivation to engage in an activity is determined by evaluating three factors.
• Expectation – One believes that more effort will lead to success. If you work harder, it will result in better performance.
• Means – One believes that there is a relationship between the activity and the goal. If you do well, you will get rewarded.
• Validity – the degree to which a person values rewards, the results of success.