Span of Control:
The concept of “Span of Control“, which is also known as the management ratio, refers to the number of direct subordinates directly controlled by a superior. This is a particularly important concept to understand small business owners because small businesses often get into trouble when the founder ends with too much control.
So, the Span of control means the number of subordinates, which one can better manage (manager or administrator) effectively. Every superior person can supervise a limited number of subordinates (employees). Therefore, every superior should be given the right to handle only some subordinates or be given.
The concept of control duration was developed in the United Kingdom by Sir Ian Standish Monteith Hamilton (1853-1947) through his book “The soul and body of an army” published in 1922. It arose from the assumption that managers have enough time to pay attention to the time, energy and jobs. In the study of British military leaders, Hamilton found that he could not effectively control three to six people directly. These figures are generally accepted as “rule of thumb” from the time of control. After more than a decade, AV Graicumas illustrated the concept of period of control mathematically. His research revealed that the number of conversations between managers and their subordinates and the amount of time managers spent on supervision became geometric as manager control increased.
It is important to keep in mind that all manager experiences a decrease in effectiveness because their period of control is greater than the optimum level. In other words, the limitations contained during the period of control are not the lack of some individual managers, but rather the managers generally. Apart from this, it is important to understand that the duration of control refers only to direct reports, instead of a complete corporate hierarchy. Even though a CEO can technically control hundreds of employees, the duration of his control will include only the head or functional manager of the department who directly reported to the CEO. “When a sufficient level of the hierarchy is given, any manager can indirectly control any person,” said Hendrick. “But when it comes to direct reports, then the theory (period of control) entrepreneurs should respect the innate boundaries of managers.”
Factors affecting the Span of Control:
1. Geographical dispersion, if the branches of business are widely spread, it will be difficult to supervise the manager each of them, such as the duration of control, will be small.
2. An experienced boss with a good understanding of the boss’s ability, good knowledge of the workers and good relations with the workers, will be able to monitor more workers.
3. The amount of other work, if the boss has other responsibilities, such as membership of committees, participation in other projects, contact with stakeholders, the number of direct reports should be small.
4. Equality of work, if those tasks which are subordinate, are similar, then the duration of control can be widespread because the manager can take care of them all at the same time.
5. Value-boss of the boss, a boss who is adding value to the training and developing new skills in the workers, will require a narrow period of control which focuses only on performance management (this is the opposite of the ability of the workers the above point).
6. The period of control should be reduced as possible, because an executive can control all its subordinate and the work should be done smoothly, efficiently or efficiently.
7. Essential administrative work, if the boss has to face regular meetings to face meetings, regular evaluation, and development plans, discuss remuneration benefits, write job description and employment contract, change in employment policy and to explain the other administrative tasks, the duration of control is reduced.
8. The ability of the workers, if workers are highly capable, they need a little supervision, and they can be left on their own, for example, people of Theory Y type, they do not need much supervision because they are motivated And do the initiatives to work; Such as the duration of the control will be broad.