Motivation is a word derived from ‘motive’ which means needs, desires, wants or drives within individuals. It is the process of motivating people to take action to accomplish goals. Therefore, motives are the forces that motivate people to work in a way, to ensure the fulfillment of a particular human need at a time. There is a motive behind every human action. Therefore, management should provide motivation for people to work for the organization.
Motivation can be defined as a planned managerial process that motivates people to work to the best of their abilities, by providing them with motives that are based on their unfulfilled needs.
According to various theories, motivation may be defined as a basic needs of individuals to reduce physical pain and increase pleasure, or may include specific needs such as eating and resting, or a desired object, goal, The state of being, the ideal, or it may be attributed to less-obvious reasons such as altruism, selfishness, morality, or mortality.
Ideologically, it should not be confused with ambition or optimism. Relates to motivation, but differs from emotion.
Concept of Motivations:
Intrinsic motivation refers to a motivation that is motivated by interest or enjoyment of an individual in a task, and is present within the individual rather than dependent on any external pressure. Intrinsic motivation has been studied by social and educational psychologists since 1970. Research has found that it is generally associated with higher academic achievement and enjoyment by students. Explanations of intrinsic motivation are given by Fritz Heider’s attribution theory, Bandura’s work on self-efficacy, and Deci and Ryan’s cognitive assessment theory.
Advantage: Intrinsic motivation can be long-lasting and self-sufficient. Efforts to build such motivation are also usually efforts to promote student learning. Such efforts often focus on the subject rather than the rewards or punishments.
Disadvantage: Efforts to promote intrinsic motivation may be slow to affect behavior and may require special and lengthy preparation. Students are individuals, so different methods may be required to motivate different students. It often helps to know what interests students have to relate these interests to the subject matter. It is necessary to know about the students. And it also helps the instructor if he is interested in the subject.
Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of a person. Common extrinsic motivations are rewards such as money and grades, coercion and threat of punishment. Competition occurs normally because it encourages the artist to win and defeat others, not to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity. Crowds crowded on individuals and trophies are also an external incentive.
Self-determination theory recommends that the extrinsic motivation concept can be internalized by the individual if the task fits with their values and beliefs of the particular individual and therefore helps to meet their basic psychological needs.
Advantage: Allows individuals to be easily motivated and work toward a goal.
Disadvantage: It only remains until external rewards are satisfactory.
Self-control of motivation is increasingly understood as a subset of emotional intelligence. A person may be highly intelligent by definition (as measured by multiple intelligence tests) by a more conservative definition, yet unmotivated to dedicate this intelligence to certain tasks. The “expectancy theory” of Professor Victor Vroomer of the Yale School of Management provides an account of when people will decide whether to pursue self-control to pursue a particular goal.
In contrast, the role of external rewards and stimuli can be seen in the example of training animals when they perform a gait correctly. The treatment prompts the animal to perform continuously, even later when removed from the treatment process.