Functions of management:
The major functions of management performed by a manager can be classified into five separate tasks, known as planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling. Behind the closed door of the manager, they spend a good deal of their time on planning and organizing, so that they can do pioneering and controlling tasks effectively. For theoretical purposes, separating the management’s work may be convenient, but in practice, these tasks are overlapping in nature i.e. they are very inseparable. Each function is mixed in the other and affects each other’s performance.
Planning: This is the basic task of management. To achieve this predetermined goals, the most appropriate course of action is related to deciding the future course of action and decision-making. Strategic planning is the process of evaluating the goals of the company and then set a course for success. This function evaluates existing activities and goals. Managers then schedule activities so that those goals can be achieved. A plan is a future action. This is an exercise in solving the problem and making decisions.
The plan is to determine the course of action to achieve the desired goals.
Thus, planning is systematic thinking about the methods and means of meeting the pre-determined goals. Planning is essential to ensure the proper use of human and non-human resources. It is all comprehensive, it is an intellectual activity and it also helps to avoid delusions, uncertainties, risks, wastage etc. For example, if target customers have to improve the time it takes to complete their order, an operational strategy is executed to improve product fulfillment.
Organizing: The organizational event brings resources together to achieve the goals set in the planning function. Resources include materials, personnel, and financial support. Leaders need to recognize whether activities are necessary, assign those activities to specific personnel, effectively handling tasks. Leaders need to coordinate tasks to move efficiently in the direction of goals. It is important to prioritize which resources are necessary at any time. According to Henry Fayol, “For human & non-human organizational structures, it is important to organize business and to organize all of its functions, which includes raw materials, equipment, capitals, and human power.”
Organizing functions of management includes:
- Identification of activities.
- Classification of groupings of activities.
- Formation of duties.
- Delegation of Rights and Responsibility to Build.
- Coordinating Rights and Responsibility Relations.
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Staffing: Staffing is the task of hiring and maintaining an appropriate workforce for enterprise at both managerial level and non-managerial level. This includes the process of recruitment, training, development, compensation, and evaluation of employees and maintaining this workforce with appropriate incentives and motivation. Since the human element is the most important factor in the management process, it is important to recruit the right personnel.
Due to the advancement of technology, increase in size of the business, complexity of human behavior, etc. in recent years, employees have gained more importance. “Structuring in managerial work of staffing involves involving organization structure through the appropriate and effective selection, evaluation and development of personnel to prepare United Nations structure”.
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Staffing functions of management includes:
- Manpower planning.
- Recruitment, selection, and placement.
- Training and Development.
- Performance appraisal.
- Promotions and Transfers.
Direction: There is an important task in directing management. Employees should tell what to do, and also when it is the responsibility of managers. However, the boss tells people what to do, while the leaders inspire people to contribute in a meaningful way. Leaders are required to work more than just ordering for the direction of the function, even if the work for the success of the business should be completed. This work begins with the supervision of the subordinates, as well as guided teams through communicable leadership to communicate in clear ways. The passive-personnel aspect of direction management is related to influencing, guiding, supervising, and directly conducting sub-coordination for achieving organizational goals.
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The Directing functions of management include:
1. Supervision: Means that they supervise the work of subordinates by their superiors. This is the task of seeing and directing work and workers.
2. Motivation: Means to inspire, incite or encourage sub-directors with enthusiasm for work. For this purpose, positive, negative, monetary, non-monetary incentives can be used. Leadership can be defined as a process through which the manager directs and influences the work of subordinates in the desired direction.
3. Communication: The process of passing information, experience, opinions, etc. from one person to another. This is a bridge of understanding.
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Controlling: The controlling system refers to all the processes that the leader creates for monitoring success. Controlling is the process of checking whether proper progress is being made in the direction of the objectives and goals and if necessary, the work is being done to correct any deviation. Corrective action can change the method of implementation of the plan or change in plan or change in purpose. Usually, our desired performance is standard objectives, policies, programs, processes, and budgets.
Controlling functions of management include:
- Establishment of the standard display.
- Measurement of actual performance.
- Comparing actual performance with standards and if any, detect deviation.
- Work to improve.
Also read | Management process