Concept of management:
The term ‘management’ has been used in various senses:
1. Management can be referred to as the process of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, and controlling, at other times it is used to describe people as the task of managing them. It is also known as the body of knowledge, practice, and discipline.
2. There are some people who describe the concept of management as a leadership and decision-making technique, while others have analyzed the management as a process of economic resources, production factors or authority.
The concept of Management can be defined as the process of achieving things with the aim of achieving goals effectively and efficiently. Management is the process of working with people and other organizational resources and reaching organizational goals.
There are some important words in the definition of management which need to describe:
Process: Process means primary work or activities that do the management work. These are action plans, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling.
Effectiveness: Effectiveness is related to the end result. Basically, it means fulfilling the given work. Thus effectiveness in management is related to doing the right thing, fulfilling activities and achieving goals.
Efficient: Efficiency means to do the job correctly and with minimal cost. Management is related to efficient utilization of input resources which ultimately reduces costs and gives rise to high profits.
It is important for management to achieve goals (effectiveness) with minimal resources, that is, efficiently while maintaining a balance between effectiveness and efficiency.
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Management has the following 3 features:
- It is a process or series of continuous and related activities.
- Management involves and focuses on reaching organizational goals.
- It works with people and other organizational resources and reaches these goals.
Definition of management:
The concept of management can be defined as the following ways:
Also read | Management process
Management is an art of getting things done: Management is the art of getting things done through those people who can be manager or non-manager. At the level of the chief executive, the work is done through the functional managers, things at the middle level are implemented through the supervisors and at the lower level of the management through the workers. Human and technical skills play an important role in getting things done. These definitions represent the traditional approach of management, whereas workers are considered to be the only factor of production. They are given wages to do their work.
Management as a Process: Management as a process because it involves many tasks. It refers to everyone, a manager separates. Various works done by managers to efficiently utilize available tasks and human resources so that desired objectives can be achieved are expressed as management. Thus, under the management process, the work of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordination and control come.
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Management as a Discipline: Sometimes the term ‘management’ is not used to do the activity, nor is it done to the workers who do it, but rather to the knowledge, practice, and discipline. In this sense, the concept of management refers to management principles and practices as a subject of study. Management is taught as a special branch of learning in educational institutions. It has attracted a lot from psychology, sociology, and anthropology. A person receiving a degree or diploma in management can try for a managerial job.
Management: Art or science? Management includes the characteristics of both art and science. Although some aspects of management make it a science, some others who incorporate the application of the skill make it an art. Every discipline of art is always supported by science, which is the basic knowledge of that art. Similarly, every discipline of science is completed only when it is used to solve various types of problems. While under “science” a person generally learns “why” an incident, under “art” nobody learns “how”. According to Robert H. Hilkart: “In the field of management, science and art are the two sides of the same coin”.
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At the beginning of the development of management knowledge, it was considered as an art form. Management was a forest of knowledge. Anyone used it in their own way. But after codifying and organizing management, it became an art as well as a science.
Management as an Art: Management can be an art in this sense that it has the following characteristics:
- It is also practiced and performed like other arts. Knowledge should be learned and practiced, just like medical or legal practitioners practice their respective science.
- Managers gain experience by constantly experiencing the continuous application of knowledge and new experiences. It helps in developing more skills and abilities to translate knowledge into practice.
- The application calls for innovation and creativity.
- The fourth reason is that in many situations, the theoretical knowledge of management cannot be sufficient or relevant to solve the problem. This can be due to the complexity or unique nature of the problem.
Also read | Managerial skills
Management as a science: Management as science has the following characteristics:
- Its principles, generalizations, and concepts are organized. In this case, the manager can manage the position or organization in a systematic and scientific manner.
- Its theories, generalizations, and concepts are prepared on the basis of observation, research, analysis, and experimentation, as is the case with the principles of other sciences.
- Like other sciences, management theory is also based on the cause and effect relationship. It states that similar causes will cause similar effects. Suppose if the workers are paid more (cause), then production is more (effect).
- Management theories are codified and systematic, and they can be transferred from one to the other and taught.
- The principles of management apply universally to all types of organizations.
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Characteristics of management:
Management is a goal-oriented process: In an organization, there is a set of basic goals which are the root causes of its existence. Management unites the efforts of different people in the organization towards achieving these goals.
Management is a continuous process: The management process is a series of constant, overall, but different actions (planning, organizing, directing, staffing, and control). These tasks are done all at once by all the managers.
Management is a dynamic task: Management is a dynamic task and it has to adapt to the changing environment. To be successful, an organization has to change itself and its goals according to the needs of the environment.
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Management is a group activity: An organization is a combination of different needs of different people. Management should enable all members to develop and develop a change in needs and opportunities.
Management is pervasive: Activities involved in the management of an enterprise are common to all organizations whether financial, social or political.
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